The Complete Guide to Parkinson’s Disease

What is Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, advancing nervous system condition that impairs movement. It has an impact on the brain’s nerve cells that generate dopamine from dying neurons. A neurotransmitter called dopamine communicates with the area of the brain that regulates movement and coordination. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms worsen over time, and as a result, dopamine production in the brain declines, making it impossible for a person to control their movements. Parkinson’s disease is more prevalent in older adults and often manifests around age 50.

What are the Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?

In most cases, symptoms appear slowly over many years. Due to the variety of the condition, the evolution of symptoms can vary a little from person to person. People with Parkinson’s disease might go through:

  • Tremor, primarily at rest and characterized as a tremor in the hands that roll pills; various types of tremor are possible
  • A sluggish and sparse movement 
  • Limb rigidity 
  • Balance and gait issues (postural instability)

Parkinson’s disease symptoms can sometimes be “non-motor,” or unrelated to movement, in addition to movement-related (“motor”) symptoms. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease frequently have a greater negative impact on patients than motor symptoms. Depression, anxiety, apathy, hallucinations, constipation, orthostatic hypotension, sleep difficulties, loss of smell, and a number of cognitive deficits are examples of non-motor symptoms.

What causes Parkinson’s disease?

The condition of the neurological system known as Parkinson’s disease . The substantia nigra, a little region of the brain, is most impacted. This region of the brain communicates with the spinal cord’s nerves to assist control the body’s muscles. Neurotransmitters are molecules that carry signals between brain cells, nerves, and muscles. Dopamine, the primary neurotransmitter, is produced by brain cells in the substantia nigra. Numerous substantia nigra cells are injured and die in Parkinson’s disease patients. It is unknown what caused this specifically. More and more cells suffer damage and pass away over time. The amount of dopamine generated decreases with cell injury. This region of the brain has fewer cells, and the cells there have less dopamine, which results in slower and irregular nerve impulses to the muscles.

What are the treatments for Parkinson’s disease?

While certain Parkinson’s disease symptoms in older persons can be controlled by medication, the condition is nonetheless progressive and irreversible. Parkinson’s disease can be managed extremely effectively with some drugs, and your parkinsons disease doctors could even recommend surgery.

Parkinson’s medications

Concerns like walking, mobility, and tremor control may benefit from medication. These drugs either raise dopamine levels or act as a dopamine replacement. Patients with Parkinson’s disease have low levels of dopamine in their brains. Dopamine, on the other hand, cannot be given directly since it cannot enter the brain.

After beginning Parkinson’s disease treatment, your symptoms can noticeably improve. On the other hand, pharmacological benefits often deteriorate or lose their validity with time. In general, you can maintain control over your symptoms. By seeking the greatest movement disorder specialist at the appropriate moment, you can stop the symptoms from getting worse.

Parkinson’s Surgery

There are a number of surgical procedures that have been created for Parkinson’s, but it’s vital to stress that none of them offers a true cure and that there are hazards involved. movement disorders treatment can occasionally stop some symptoms from getting worse, but they cannot stop the disease from getting worse. Here are two of the more popular and thoroughly studied methods:

  • Brain lesioning procedures:

Destruction of distinct areas of the brain tissue involved in Parkinson’s disease, such as thalamotomy and pallidotomy. The advantages are not always sustained, and this lasting influence on the brain is not advised for both sides of the brain. While pallidotomy may also assist to lessen the dyskinesia side effects that can arise from long-term medication therapy, thalamotomy is only useful in lowering severe tremors.

  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS):

Surgery to lesion the brain is one form of treatment; another is deep brain stimulation (DBS). To change the region’s aberrant function, a metal electrode is positioned in the targeted part of the brain. A pulse is then produced there. During this surgery, no brain tissue is lost. The outcome of surgical treatment is frequently influenced by the patient’s overall health. If the patient is in good health and the symptoms call for it, DBS can be performed on both sides of the brain..

Lifestyle Changes for Parkinson’s Disease

Healthy eating:

  • Eating nutritious food Antioxidants can be used to treat Parkinson’s disease.
  • Junk food should be avoided since it contains a lot of trans fat, which is bad for brain function.

You can also check our post on: What is Nutritious Diet, and What are Its Benefits?


  • The greatest way to treat Parkinson’s disease is through exercise.
  • Exercise increases blood flow and ensures that the neurons are receiving enough oxygen.
  • Dopamine levels also significantly rise throughout this process.

Fall Prevention:

Fall prevention entails adopting measures to prevent slips, trips, and falls that could injure the brain, particularly the area of the cerebrum and cerebellum that controls movement. 

Alternative medicine:

Parkinson’s disease risk can be decreased by taking supplements that raise blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids, contain anti-inflammatory ingredients, and other beneficial ingredients.


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