A disorder known as cancer occurs when the body’s cells proliferate unrestrained. The bodily part where cancer first manifests itself is always given the name of the disease. The cervix is where cervical cancer first manifests itself. The cervix connects the vagina (birth canal) and the upper part of the uterus. The uterus, commonly referred to as the womb, is where the developing baby grows when a woman is pregnant.
The human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, is responsible for the majority of cases of cervical cancer. When exposed to HPV, the body’s immune system often prevents the virus from doing any harm. Regular screenings are essential for early detection and better Cervical cancer treatment outcomes because cervical cancer can be asymptomatic in its early stages.
Causes of Cervical Cancer
The majority of cervical malignancies are brought on by chronic HPV (human papillomavirus) infection. The majority of persons who have HPV infection do not go on to develop cancer. Only a few of the more than 100 different HPV types have been associated with cancer. Benign warts on the skin or genitalia are brought on by other HPV strains. It has been established that the so-called high-risk HPV strains can result in both cervical and penile malignancies in males.
Additionally, HPVs have been linked to cancers of the
- throat, and
- genitalia in both sexes.
Sexual contact or skin-to-skin contact are the two main ways that HPV infection spreads. Numerous studies have revealed that HPV infection is widespread and that the majority of people will contract the virus at some point in their lives.
Infections with the human papillomavirus frequently go away on their own. The HPV infection can persist in certain women and lead to precancerous alterations in the cervix’s cells. Regular cervical cancer screening, often known as Pap tests, can identify these alterations.
During a regular pelvic exam, a superficial sample of cervix cells is collected with a brush or swab and sent to a lab for the study of the cells’ appearance.
Types of Cervical Cancer
The various forms of cervical cancer include:
Squamous cell carcinoma
This type of cancer develops from the thin, flat, or squamous cells that line the cervix’s outer surface and extend into the vagina. The most frequent types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinomas.
The glandular cells that line the cervical canal have a columnar form when this type of cancer first develops.
Cervical cancer can occasionally include both cells. Other cervix cells have very little chance of developing cancer.
Cervical Cancer risk elements
- Smoking and passive smoking increase- the risk of developing cancer in HPV-positive individuals because tobacco’s compounds can harm the cervix’s cells.
- Long-term use of oral contraceptives (the pill) has been linked to an increased risk of cervical cancer in HPV-positive individuals when the pill is taken for five years or more. It’s unclear why this is the case. The risk is minimal, though, and the pill can also help ward off other diseases like ovarian and uterine cancer. In case you are worried, consult your doctor.
- Having a compromised immune system, as the immune system aids in HPV removal from the body. Women with compromised immune systems should get cervical screenings more frequently since they are more likely to develop the disease. Women who have the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and those who use medications that weaken their immunity are included in this.
Cervical Cancer Treatment
Depending on the type, stage, and severity of cancer, a woman may require sophisticated techniques to remove cervical cancer from her reproductive system.
Surgery: The invasive procedures used to remove cervix malignancies include methods to merely remove tumorous growths, complete cervix removal (trachelectomy), and hysterectomy, which involves cutting out both the cervix and the uterus.
Chemotherapy: The Cervical Cancer specialist provides strong medications that specifically target and eradicate the malignant cells in the sick woman’s cervix. These medications can be given intravenously or orally.
Radiotherapy: By precisely identifying and killing the cancer cells in the cervix using high-energy sources like X-rays or protons, healthy cells nearby are left unharmed.
Immunotherapy: This treatment involves taking a prescription drug as prescribed by a doctor to strengthen the body’s defenses against malignant cells by the immune system.
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