Endobronchial cancer are characterized by small size, slow growth and usually misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic bronchitis due to their common symptoms. These cancers are usually benign and rare. Due to these reasons, they may remain undiagnosed for a long time and lead to serious complications. The term bronchial adenoma encompasses a diverse group of tumors of mucous glands, trachea or bronchi. Common symptoms of endobronchial cancer include difficulty in breathing (dyspnea), wheezing due to obstructed windpipe, cough and in some cases fever. Cigarette smoking and alcohol addiction have been found to be in close association of endobronchial cancer. Scientists also suggest that various lung cancer cases have shown endobronchial metastases.
The cancer is diagnosed through various radiology tests such as X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Octreotide scan, also known as somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, is also used for diagnosis of endobronchial cancer. It is a non-invasive diagnostic method used to detect presence of tumor cells. Bronchoscopy is a routine method to visualize cancer growth. A bronchoscope is a thing flexible tube which possesses a camera at its tip. A clear image of the cancer and its progression can be obtained through bronchoscopy method. Tissue biopsy by endoscopic methods also helps in gaining more insight to cancer type and its further assessment.
Surgical removal of the cancer can be done through open lung surgeries or endoscopic methods. Although choice depends on size and nature of the tumor. Small and localized tumor can be excised through bronchoscopic surgeries. Certain tumors can also be ablated through laser treatment. This method is usually accompanies with chemotherapy, as there are chances of cancer relapse.
Brachytherapy, Argon beam coagulation, photodynamic therapy and other radiation methods have also shown promising results in treating endobronchial cancer. Steba Biotech S.A. is conducting phase II clinical trials for its investigational drug WST11. Pinnacle Biologics manufactured PHOTOFRIN (porfimer sodium) has been widely employed in photodynamic therapy for treating endobronchial cancer. Pinnacle Biologics has also received FDA approval for the treatment of oesophageal and endobronchial cancer Market and high-grade dysplasia in barrett’s oesophagus.
Cancer has been a major cause of mortalities worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that 60% of the new cases occur in Africa, Asia and Central and South America. Over 8 million mortalities were recorded in 2012 globally, with lung cancer accounting for approximately 3 million cases, while oesophageal cancer accounting for 400,000 deaths worldwide. Over one-fifth of all cancer cases are diagnosed in India. Despite high smoking rate, prevalence of lung cancer in China is lower than European countries. According to Cancer Research, U.K., approximately 43,000 individuals in the UK were diagnosed with lung cancer in 2011.
Such high prevalence of cancer has demanded for quicker and effective treatment. Advances in biotechnology have introduced innovative methods of cancer diagnosis and cure, however because of high cost these technologies have not yet available to low and middle income countries. Countries such as India, China, Brazil and Japan have been the most attractive geographies for endobronchial cancer. Japan is the second largest individual healthcare market after the U.S. Constantly developing healthcare sector in China, India and Brazil have created promising opportunities in these countries. Higher cancer prevalence, increasing per capita income and evolving government policies are other factors favoring market growth.