Beta-lactams are antibacterial drugs that possess the basic characteristic of inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. All Beta-lactams possess similar chemistry, with the exception of alkyl groups that bind to the penicillin binding proteins (PBP) located in bacterial cell walls, thereby inhibiting synthesis and cell death. Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for various infectious diseases and affect billions of individuals globally. Majority of these include pneumonia, impetigo, and urinary tract infections. Some of the widely prescribed drugs in this class include amoxicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, ticarcillin, imipenem, doripenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefadroxil, cefalexin, ceftaroline, cefuroxime, cefaclor, ceftriaxone, cefditoren, ceftazidime, and others.
Major drivers of the global Beta-lactam drugs market include increase in prevalence of infectious diseases such as MRSA, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and clostridium difficile infections; rise in multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, aging population, and demand for effective and affordable treatments for bacterial infections. Prevalence of infectious diseases is increasing across the globe and is the highest in low to middle income countries. Beta Multidrug-resistant bacterial strains have evolved due to increased usage of Beta-lactam drugs. This provides scope for new innovative drugs and drug combinations. Moreover, aging population in several developed countries is likely to boost market growth, because elderly people have lower immunity and are more prone to infectious diseases. Increase in demand for affordable and effective drugs in the emerging markets is also projected to drive the market during the forecast period.
According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, pneumonia accounts for over 1.1 million deaths of children below five years of age each year, which is more than the number of deaths occurring from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria (in the same age group) combined. Other data published by the WHO states that tuberculosis affected over 9 million individuals (across all age groups) globally in 2013, of these 1.5 million individuals died. Furthermore, over 0.3 million gonorrhea cases were recorded in 2012 in the U.S. alone. Increase in prevalence of numerous infectious diseases, rise in demand for effective and affordable generic drugs, and potential pipeline drugs that are in late stage (phase III) clinical trials are anticipated to fuel the growth of the market during the forecast period. However, patent expiry of leading branded formulations such as Doribax (June 2015), Cayston (2017), and Teflaro (2018) is a major factor expected to restrain the market. Moreover, a large number of generic Beta-lactam drugs are available are expected to hamper the growth of the market. Continuous innovation and rising incidence of new infectious diseases provide growth opportunities in the Beta-lactam drugs market. The global Beta-lactam drugs market can be segmented based on antibiotic type, distribution channel, and region. In terms of antibiotic type, the market can be classified into penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenem, and monobactum. Based on distribution channel, the global Beta-lactam drugs market can be categorized into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies.
Geographically, the global Beta-lactam drugs market can be segmented into Asia Pacific, Latin America, Europe, North America, and Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific held the largest market share in 2016. The Beta-lactam drugs market in this region is highly fragmented, with large number of companies producing branded and generic versions of Beta-lactam drugs. Additionally, rise in prevalence of bacterial infection and increase in government initiatives that appear to be moving toward shorter periods of patent exclusivity for new drug applications are factors attributed to Asia Pacific’s dominance of the market. Presence of large population and growing patient awareness are other factors propelling the market in Asia Pacific. Moreover, increasing geriatric population that is more prone to bacterial infections triggered due to low immunity would consequently increase the uptake of Beta-lactam drugs. North America was the second largest market for Beta-lactam drugs in terms of revenue in 2016. Rise in incidence of bacterial infections is one of the major factors driving the Beta-lactam drugs market in North America, as increasing multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is boosting the development of new anti-infective drugs. Increase in incidence of gram negative bacteria in North America is another major factor attributed to the dominance of the region in the Beta-lactam drugs market.
Key players operating in the global Beta-lactam drugs market are GlaxoSmithKline plc, Pfizer, Inc., AstraZeneca plc, Merck & Co., Inc., Cubist Pharmaceuticals (Subsidiary of Merck & Co), Eli Lilly and Company, and Shionogi, Inc., among others.
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