Adrenal cortex is the outer layer of the gland involved in production of lifesaving hormones such as mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids (aldosterone and cortisol) required for metabolism and stress management. Adrenal glands are located on the top of the kidneys. Adrenal cortical carcinoma is the cancer of adrenal cortex. There are two types of tumor associated with adrenal cortex, such as functioning tumor and non-functioning tumor. Functioning tumor is responsible for increase in the production of adrenal hormones, whereas, non-functioning tumor does not affect hormonal production. Adrenal cortical carcinoma is generally a secondary type of cancer. It occurs when another form of cancer spreads into the adrenal glands.
Increasing incidence of adrenal cortical carcinoma due to spread of other form of cancer, advancement in imaging technologies to identify adrenal cortical tumors specifically, growing healthcare expenditure, and rising number of cancer treatment centers across the world are some of the dominating factors expected to fuel the growth of the global adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market during the forecast period. For instance, according to the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy. The incidence rate for adrenal cortical carcinoma is 0.7–2.0 cases per million people. The disease is more common in women. It is generally diagnosed in the age group of 40 and 50 years. However, high incidence of adrenal cortical carcinoma is recorded among children in Brazil due to the high prevalence of a specific TP53 germline mutation in them.
The global adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market can be segmented based on type of test, type of therapy, end-user, and region. In terms of type of test used for the diagnosis of adrenal cortical carcinoma, the market can be divided into magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and biopsy. In terms of type of therapy, the adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market can be categorized into surgery, chemotherapy, other drug therapy, radiation therapy, and biologic therapy. The surgery therapy segment can be further categorized into laparoscopic surgeries and open surgeries.
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The chemotherapy segment can be classified based on the type of drug used for the treatment into mitotane and the combination therapy of cisplatin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), and etoposide (VP-16) plus mitotane. The other drug therapy segment involves treatment of hormonal effects caused by the tumor. Drugs included in this type of therapy are spironolactone, mifepristone, tamoxifen, toremifene, etc. The radiation therapy segment can be bifurcated into external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. In terms of end-user, the adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market can be segmented into hospitals, specialty cancer clinics, diagnostic centers, and others.
Based on geography, the global adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to dominate the adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market owing to high per capita disposable income and increasing incidence of the adrenal cortical carcinoma in the region. For instance, according to the American Cancer Society, adrenal tumors (most of which are benign adenomas) are found in 1 in every 10 people who undergo tests such as CT scan or MRI of the adrenal gland. Europe is expected to be the second leading market for semen analysis due to high awareness about early diagnosis and treatment of the disease, favorable reimbursement facilities, and increasing healthcare expenditure in the region. Asia Pacific can be considered as an emerging market for the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
Key players operating in the global adrenal cortical carcinoma diagnosis and treatment market include HRA Pharma, ER Squibb & Sons LLC, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, GE healthcare, WG Critical Care, LLC, David Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd., Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Fresenius Kabi, Pfizer, SINOVISION Technologies(Beijing) Co., Ltd., Hitachi Medical Systems, NeuroLogica Corp., and Digirad Corporation.